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Table 2 Estimated power decrease for Europe

From: Influence of volcanic tephra on photovoltaic (PV)-modules: an experimental study with application to the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland

  Module 1 Module 2
Vclear 17.41 V 18.52 V
Vash 16.81 V 17.73 V
Δ V 0.60 V ≈ 3.5 % 0.79 V ≈ 4.3 %
Iclear 0.25 A 0.15 A
Iash 0.17 A 0.11 A
Δ I 0.08 A ≈ 32 % 0.04 A ≈ 27 %
Pclear 4.35 W 2.78 W
Pash 2.86 W 1.95 W
Δ P 1.49 W ≈ 34.3 % 0.83 W ≈ 29.9 %
  1. Expected reduction in voltage (V), current (I) and power (P) for PV-modules 1 and 2 using the ash concentration (0.32 g/m2) over Europe during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. This shows the estimated impacts to PV-modules located in Europe based on our laboratory experiments