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Table 11 Comparison of PCC-VC ashfall impacts to infrastructure with existing damage state scales

From: Impacts to agriculture and critical infrastructure in Argentina after ashfall from the 2011 eruption of the Cordón Caulle volcanic complex: an assessment of published damage and function thresholds

Infrastructure Town Ash thick-ness (mm) Damage State from thickness (Wilson et al. 2014a) Damage state description Damage state based on obser-vations Justification of assigned damage state Damage state from thickness (Jenkins et al. 2014) Damage state description Damage state based on obser-vations Justification of assigned damage state
Electricity Villa la Angostura 150–170 3 Damage: structural damage to transmission equipment; Distruption: widespread disruption to supply with some permanent issues 2 No reported issues with structural damage, no permanent disruption 5 Damage: structural damage; Function: permanent disruption 3–4 No reported issues with structural damage, no permanent disruption
Bariloche 30–45 2 Damage: damage to exposed moving parts, possible line breakages; Disruption: flashover, cleaning and repair 1 No damage reported to lines or parts 3–4 Damage: some damage to components; Function: disruption requiring repair 3–4 ~
Jacobacci 50 2 2 ~ 3–4 3–4 ~
Water Supply Villa la Angostura 150–170 3 Damage: infilling of open reservoirs and tanks, collapse of reservoir roofs; Disruption: severe contamination of water supply and exhaustion of supply due to demand 2 No roof collapse reported, water demand raised but not exhaused Not included in damage states due to issues with relating impacts to a single hazard intensity measure (in this case ash thickness (mm)
Bariloche 30–45 2 Damage: damage to pumping equipment, infilling of tanks; Disruption: contamination of water, increased treatment needed 2 ~
Jacobacci 50 2 0 No damage due to pumps being in pumphouses
Waste water Villa la Angostura 150–170 3 NA NA NA Not included in damage states due to issues with relating impacts to a single hazard intensity measure (in this case ash thickness (mm)
Bariloche 30–45 2 Damage: sedimentation causing some blockages and damage, possible infilling of tanks; Disruption: temporary disruption to clean network, possible release of untreated sewage 2 ~
Jacobacci 50 2 NA NA NA
Roading Villa la Angostura 150–170 3 Damage: complete burial, structural damage to bridges; Disruption: roads impassable, widespread closures 2 No structural damage reported, some vehicles could use roads at limited speeds 4 Damage: road surface abrasion; Function: 4WDs obstructed 4 ~
Bariloche 30–45 1 Damage: possible abrasion of road markings and paved surfaces; Disruption: reduced visibility and traction 1 ~ 3 Damage: road surface and marking abrasion; Function: 2WD vehicles obstructed 2 Some vehicles could use roads at very limited speeds
Jacobacci 50 2 Damage: possible abrasion of road markings and surfaces; Disruption: reduced traction, closures 2–3 Remobilisation of the ashfall deposit meant that roads were impassable some days 3 3 ~
Airports Bariloche 30–45 2 Damage: moderate abrasion of runway and landing lights; Disruption: airport closure 2 ~ 1–4 Damage: possible runway degradation; Function: runway closure 1–4 ~