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Table 4 Impacts on agrictulture at study sites (NHNPa indicates Nahuel Huapi National Park land)

From: Impacts to agriculture and critical infrastructure in Argentina after ashfall from the 2011 eruption of the Cordón Caulle volcanic complex: an assessment of published damage and function thresholds

  Farm characteristics Ash Thickness (mm) Animal Numbers (Losses in brackets)
Farm ID Location Farm Size (ha) Approximate rainfall (mm/year) Animal water source Farmer Est. Wilson et al. 2012c Cows Sheep Goat
A Rio Totoral NHNP 800 Stream/lake 600 300+ ~50 (~46) - -
B Eastern side of Lago Nahuel Huapi NHNP 800 Stream/lake 500 300+ ~50 - -
C Comallo Valley 1000 120 Troughs from underground wells 70 50 50 164 (121) -
D Outskirts of Comallo Township 10 120 Troughs from underground wells 30–40 30–45 - 20–30 (5) -
E Eastern end of the Comallo Valley 40 120 Troughs from underground wells 20 50 200 (35) 1600 (400) -
  Animal Symptoms Vegetation Issues
Farm ID Eye and skin irritation Immobilisation Tooth abrasion Starvation/dehydration Gastro-intestinal blockages Fluorosis Loss Causes Vegetation losses (%) Vegetation loss cause
A - - (chronic) Starvation and lack of clean water. 25 Burial
B (on-going) - - (chronic) Evacuated animals as soon as possible. Killed some for household use. 25 Burial and remobilisation
C (on-going) - (chronic) Starvation (no spring grass), dehydration (stream dried up) and rumen blockages. Tooth abrasion. 6-year drought compounded problems. 50 Burial and remobilisation
D (on-going) - (chronic) No autopsies. Remobilisation issues. Also experienced losses from 1960 PCCVC ashfall due to stomach blockages 25 Burial and remobilisation
E (on-going) - (chronic) Ash in rumen causing stomach blockages. Tooth abrasion. Issues with water supply. 25 Burial and remobilisation
  1. a Farmers in the Nahuel Huapi National Park (NHNP) are assigned parcels of land based on animal numbers and the number of animals already in the immediate area. Land boundaries are not strictly adhered to and animals freely graze the park