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Table 5 Comparison of PCC-VC ashfall impacts to interviewed farms with existing damage state scales

From: Impacts to agriculture and critical infrastructure in Argentina after ashfall from the 2011 eruption of the Cordón Caulle volcanic complex: an assessment of published damage and function thresholds

Farm ID Ash thick-ness (mm) Damage State based on thickness (Wilson et al. 2009)a Damage state description Damage state based on observations Justification of assigned damage state Damage state based on thickness (Jenkins et al. 2014) Damage state description Damage state based on observations Justification of assigned damage state
A 300+ >150mm category New soil formation needs to occur (up to decades) 25–150 category Ash was incorporated into soil within months 5 Major rehabilitation required/retirement of land 2 No land was retired and very little rehabilitation work was undertaken
B 300+ >150mm category New soil formation needs to occur (up to decades) 25–150 category Ash was incorporated into soil within months 5 Major rehabilitation required/retirement of land 2 No land was retired and very little rehabilitation work was undertaken
C 50 25–150 category Integration of tephra into soil in 1–5 years 50–150 mm category Recovery will be limited within the next growing season 2–3 Minor to major productivity loss (remediation required) 3 Losses were >50% across the region, however due to lack of resources very little remediation took place
D 30–45 25–150 category Integration of tephra into soil in 1–5 years 25–150 category Forecast time to total recovery (~5 years) is within what is predicted for the area 2–3 Minor to major productivity loss (remediation required) 3 Losses were >50% across the region, however due to lack of resources very little remediation took place
E 50 25–150 category Integration of tephra into soil in 1–5 years 25–150 category Forecast time to total recovery (~5 years) is within predictions 2–3 Minor to major productivity loss (remediation required) 3 Losses were >50% across the region, however due to lack of resources very little remediation took place
  1. a Not suggested as true damage states, rather guidelines for what impacts to expect