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Table 8 Ash thicknesses with impacts compared to previous ashfall events 1980-2010 (NI - Not investigated within studies; NA- Not applicable)

From: Impacts to agriculture and critical infrastructure in Argentina after ashfall from the 2011 eruption of the Cordón Caulle volcanic complex: an assessment of published damage and function thresholds

Eruption Pacaya 2010 Chaiten 2008 Ruapehu 1995/96 Rabaul 1994 Mt Spurr 1992 Hudson 1991 Mt St Helens 1980
Localities impacted Guatemala City Futaleufu Esquel Gisborne Rabaul Anchorage Perito Moreno Los Antiguos Yakima
Ash thicknesses (mm) 20–30 80 15 3 600–1000 3–5 30–40 75 6–10
Electricity Flashover NI NI   
  Air intakes clogging      NI NI    
  Switch abrasion      NI NI    
  Controlled outage     NI NI    
  Generator blockage      NI NI    
Water Turbidity increase NI
  Damage to pumps     NI     
  Filtration contamination      NI    
  Clogging of filters      NI    
  Increased demand     NI    
Waste water Effects on sewer networks (clogging, wear on pumps)     NI NI NI
  Damage to pre-screening equipment     NI   NI NI
  Power outages affecting pumping     NI   NI NI
  Ash accumulation in treatment tanks     NI   NI NI
Roading Road closures    
  Air filter blockage         
  Decreased traction    
  Decreased visibility  
  Road markings covered        
Airport Airport closed NA NI NA NA