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Table 1 Benchmark parameters

From: Benchmarking computational fluid dynamics models of lava flow simulation for hazard assessment, forecasting, and risk management

Name Fluid Viscosity Temperature Geometry Substrate Obstacle Observationsa References
A Golden syrup Isoviscous (78.1 Pa s) Isothermal (19.7 °C) Point source, sloping plane (15°) Plastic None X, Y, H at 24.5 cm with time After BM2 (Cordonnier et al., 2015),
Data from Dietterich et al. (2015)
B 90° Golden syrup Isoviscous (96 Pa s) Isothermal (18.0 °C) Point source, sloping plane (15°) Plastic 90° V-shaped, 4 cm side length X, Y, H at 24.5 cm with time Data from Dietterich et al. (2015)
B 180° Golden syrup Isoviscous (43.8 Pa s) Isothermal (22.5 °C) Point source, sloping plane (15°) Plastic 8 cm long wall X, Y, H at 24.5 cm with time Data from Dietterich et al. (2015)
C Silicone oil Isoviscous (3.4 Pa s) Cooling (42 °C fluid, 20 °C ambient) Point source, horizontal plane Polystyrene None R, surface T BM3 (Cordonnier et al., 2015),
Data from Garel et al. (2012)
D Molten basalt Temperature-dependent viscosity Cooling (1050 °C fluid, 20 °C ambient), Solidifying Wide source, sloping plane (13.25°) Sand None X, Y, H at 50 cm, surface T After BM4 (Cordonnier et al., 2015),
Data from Dietterich et al. (2015)
  1. a X downslope dimension, Y cross-slope dimension, H thickness at a certain distance from vent (e.g., 24.5 cm), R radius, surface T surface temperature