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Table 4 Statistics for distance of fatal incidents by fatal cause, ordered by decreasing number of fatalities

From: Volcanic fatalities database: analysis of volcanic threat with distance and victim classification

Fatal Cause Number of incidents Number of fatalities Min. distance (km) Max. distance (km) Mean distance (km) Median distance (km) 2σ (km)
PDC 102 59,958 1.5 80 10.7 10.0 19.0
Tsunami 23 56,822 3.0 115 37.3 23.0 74.0
Lahars 72 49,938 1.0 100 24.1 20.0 38.9
Secondary lahars 41 6377 2.7 45 22.9 20.0 30.0
Tephra 52 4315 0.5 170 18.6 10.0 61.8
Avalanche 9 3525 1.0 20 8.3 7.0 13.2
Quiescent Gas 50 1698 0.1 74 10.9 7.5 30.8
Quiescent gas from vent 0.0 13 5.4 6.8 9.0
Lava flows 25 659 1.0 29 12.2 11.0 15.8
Lava flows from vent 1.0 29 11.6 10.0 15.8
Gas 16 585 5.0 21 9.8 9.0 13.1
Gas from vent 1.0 21 7.2 5.0 15.1
Ballistics 57 367 0.0 7 1.7 1.0 3.0
Hydrothermal 7 62 1.5 20 9.3 6.0 17.5
Hydrothermal from vent 0.8 3 1.6 1.3 1.7
Lightning 4 9 15.0 30 22.5 22.5 21.2
All eruptive hazards 515 214,004 0.0 170 13.5 8.6 35.6
  1. Data include QL 1 and QL 2max. Gas, quiescent gas, lava flows and hydrothermal bursts are sometimes recorded with distance from their source vent as well as distance from the summit. In these cases we present all data under the parent category (e.g. quiescent gas) and substitute in the distance from vent data in the subcategory (e.g. quiescent gas from vent). We do not double count the fatalities and fatal incidents. All eruptive hazards includes the ‘Multiple’ and ‘Eruption – unknown element’ fatal cause categories: quiescent hazards are excluded. Note that the incident count includes sub-incidents