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Table 2 Selected results of InSAR analysis during the LAPP for volcanoes listed from north to south

From: Towards coordinated regional multi-satellite InSAR volcano observations: results from the Latin America pilot project

Volcano, Country Result from InSAR Value of satellite data or action taken
Soufriere Hills, Montserrat Topographic changes associated with dome growth and pyroclastic density currents (Arnold et al. 2016) Complements ground- and aerial DEMs
Popocatepetla, Mexico Deformation observed of western flank in InSAR and GPS (Solano-Rojas et al. 2017) Continued ground monitoring
Colima, Mexicoa Ground deformation before Jan. 2013 explosion (Salzer et al. 2014) Continued ground monitoring
Pacayaab, Guatemala Magmatic processes, lava flow compaction and & flank motion have been detected by InSAR in 2013-1014 (Wnuk and Wauthier 2017) Only monitoring data available beside one seismic station and sparse campaign GPS data. However, three new seismic stations were installed in 2016 and three new GPS monuments will be deployed as a result of the LAPP InSAR measurements
Santiaguitoa, Guatemala Subsidence of deposits on the southern part of the active Caliente dome (Wauthier 2016) as previously identified by (Ebmeier et al. 2012) Only monitoring data besides campaign tiltmeters and photogrammetry studies of the active Caliente dome (Johnson et al. 2014)
Fuegoa, Guatemala Null results but coherence is poor even with ALOS-2 likely due to the volcano’s steep slopes Limited ground-based monitoring (only one single short-period seismometer with low signal-to-noise ratio on the eastern flank)
Masayaab, Nicaragua Ground deformation due to conduit processes associated with explosive eruptions in 2012 (Stephens et al. 2017). Uplift offset from active summit during unrest in 2015-2016 (Stephens and Wauthier 2018) Only monitoring data available, besides few seismometers and 1 GPS station in the caldera and 1 in Managua city. New GPS stations are being installed as a result of the LAPP InSAR results
Momotomboab, Nicaragua Lack of pre-eruptive inflation has been confirmed by InSAR (Roman et al. 2016) 1 permanent GPS station confirms no pre-eruptive inflation (Roman et al. 2016). Those results showed there was no major shallow magma storage and thus helped INETER with hazards assessment. Additionally, following those results, new GPS instruments around the volcano are being installed
Telicaa, Nicaragua Co-eruptive deformation in 2015 confirmed by InSAR (Diana Roman, personal communication, 2017) 1 GPS station is consistent with motion observed with InSAR data
Arenal, Costa Rica Loading and landsliding associated with recently erupted products (Muller et al. 2015) InSAR data provided spatial covereage needed to identify process responsible for deformation, and to detect landslides on upper slopes.
Turrialbab, Costa Rica GPS measured deformation associated with eruptions and long-term background uplift. No major deformation in C-band and L-band interferograms. X-band data incoherent so localised deformation around vent would be undetected. Continued ground monitoring
Poasb, Costa Rica GPS measured deformation associated with phreatic eruption in 2017. No background X-band acquisitions available to provide confirmation. Continued ground monitoring
Nevado del Ruiz, Colombiaa Broad uplift discovered centered 10 km SW of volcano (Lundgren et al. 2015) Provided synoptic context to understand GPS data that only captured fraction of deformation
Chiles-Cerro Negro, Colombia-Ecuador Ground deformation during seismic crisis at unmonitored volcano (Ebmeier et al. 2016) InSAR data added to evidence from the ground observations to assess hazard
Reventadorab, Ecuador Topographic change associated with ongoing eruption. TanDEM-X and RSAT2 used to map 43 independent lava flows in 2012-2016 (Naranjo et al. 2016; Arnold et al. 2017) InSAR data critical to measuring flow thickness and hence effusion rates
Tungurahuaab, Ecuador Also covered by GSNL. Frequent deformation on western flank detected with multiple satellites Dense ground-based network, but deformation located between sensors (Muller 2016).
Cotopaxiab, Ecuador Also covered by GSNL. Pre-eruptive deformation (Morales-Rivera et al. 2017); co-eruptive amplitude changes (Arnold et al. 2018). Amplitude images confirmed changes in ice-cap detected by overflights. Pre-eruptive deformation detected retrospectively.
Fernandina, Ecuador InSAR time series shows continuous uplift over the 2012-2013 period only shortly interrupted for a couple of months at the end of 2012 (Pepe et al. 2017). Continued limited ground monitoring (1 working seismometer)
Wolfa, Ecuador InSAR time series shows large co-eruptive ground deformation and confirms results based on single interferograms, as in (Xu et al. 2016). No clear evidence of pre-eruptive deformation signals. No ground monitoring, but for some seismometers on nearby islands (Bernard et al. 2015)
Auquihuato, Perú Earthquake deformation at unmonitored volcano (Morales-Rivera et al. 2016) although no deformation observed 4/14-7/16 Ground observations planned for future
El Misti, Perú No deformation associated with media reports of increased activity Continued ground monitoring
Ticsani, Perú No deformation during earthquake swarms (June-Sept. 2015) Continued ground monitoring
Sabancayaab, Perú Earthquake deformation, but no large magmatic signal (Jay et al. 2015) until potential signal in 2015-2016 (Additional file 2: Figure S2) Combined with ground measurements during ongoing crisis
Ubinasab, Perú No ground deformation measured spanning several eruptions (Additional file 2: Figure S3) Lack of deformation is not understood
Guallatirib, Chile Ground sensor detected motion but InSAR didn’t (Additional file 2: Figure S4) Ground sensor determined to be malfunctioning
Uturuncu, Bolivia Continued deformation detected by ground sensors but not sufficient InSAR between 2010-2014 (Henderson and Pritchard 2017) No action
Láscara, Chile Crater subsidence unaffected by VEI 1-2 eruptions (Richter et al. 2018) Continued ground monitoring
Lazufre, Chile-Argentina Deformation rate slowed down (Henderson et al. 2017) Continued ground monitoring
Cerro Blanco, Argentina Continued subsidence (López et al. 2016) No action
Planchón-Peteroab, Chile No deformation during earthquake swarm (Additional file 2: Figure S5) Continued ground monitoring
Laguna del Maule, Chile Uplift confirmed by ground observations (Le Mével et al. 2015; Grainger 2017) Continued ground monitoring
Nevados de Chillánab, Chile No deformation during earthquakes or explosions Continued ground monitoring
Copahuea, Argentina-Chile InSAR time series show 2011-2016 inflation before summit activity (Velez et al. 2016) unaffected by several VEI 1-2 eruptions (Lundgren et al. 2017) Continued ground monitoring
Llaima, Chile Background observations show no deformation (Delgado et al. 2017) Continued ground monitoring
Villarricaab, Chile Deformation detected after 2015 eruption (Delgado et al. 2017) Combined with GPS data, alert level of volcano raised
Cordón Caulle, Chile Discovered fast uplift following eruption not detected by seismic network (Delgado et al. 2016; Euillades et al. 2017) Deployed additional GPS receivers
Calbucoab, Chile Co-eruptive but not pre-eruptive deformation (Delgado et al. 2017; Nikkhoo et al. 2017), post eruptive deformation suggested by ground sensor but not confirmed by InSAR (Additional file 2: Figure S1) Confirmed single ground sensor had co-eruptive deformation and showed post-eruptive sensor unreliable
Chaitén, Chile Background observations show no subsurface deformation, but topographic change at lava dome (Fig. 9e) Continued ground monitoring
Hudsonb, Chile Background observations show no deformation during earthquake swarm, but new CoSSC data reveal significant topographic change before 2012 (Fig. 9C) Continued ground monitoring
  1. aVolcanoes that erupted during the LAPP. bVolcanoes where specific observations were requested by the volcano observatory (17)