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Table 12 Table indicating the research gaps identified (o) and when data of each type have been collected (x). Data types (as identified in Section 4) are arranged in order of the preparedness, response, and recovery cycle

From: Lava flow crises in inhabited areas part I: lessons learned and research gaps related to effusive, basaltic eruptions

Volcano Eruption Preparedness Response Recovery
Preparatory narrative Lava flow hazard modelling Eruption narrative Lava flow attributes Detailed, physical impact data Response narrative Communication approach Evacuation data Recovery (including abandonment of land) narrative Community reactions Applications of learnings
Etna 1971 o o x o x o o o o o o
1981 x o x o o x x o x o x
1983 x x x o n/a x x o o o x
1991–1993 x x x x n/a x x x o x x
2001 x x x o o x x n/a o o o
2002–2003 x x x o o x x n/a x o o
Kilauea 1955 o o x o o x o x x x x
1960 o o x o o x o x x x x
1983–2018 x x x x o x x x x x x
2018 x x x 1 1 x x x x x x
Mauna Loa 1950 o o x x o o o o o o o
1984 x o x o n/a x o n/a o o x
Vestmannaeyjar 1973 x o x x o x x x x x o
Nyiragongo 1977 o o x o o o o o o o x
2002 x x x o o o x x x x o
Piton de la Fournaise 1977–1978 o o x o o x o x o o x
1986 x o x x o x o x o o o
1998 x o x o o x o x o o o
2001 x o x o o x o x o o o
2002–01 x o x o o x o x o x o
2002–11 x o x o o x o x o o o
2004–05 x o x o o x o x o o o
2004–12 x o x o o x o x o o o
2005 x o x o o x o x o o o
2007 x o x o o x x x x o o
2018 x o x o o x x x o o o
Karthala 1977 o o x o o o o x o o o
Fogo 1951 o o x o o o o o o o o
1995 o o x x o x o x x o o
2014 o o x x x x o x x o o
Izu-Oshima 1986 o x x o n/a x x x o o o
Miyakejima 1962 o o x o o o o x o o o
1983 o o x o x x o x x o o
Mt. Cameroon 1959 o o x x o o o o o o o
1982 o o x x o o o o o o x
1999 x o x x o o o o o o o
2000 x o x x o o o x o o o
La Palma 1971 o o o o o o o o o o o
Total 38 22 8 37 11 4 26 12 25 12 8 11
  1. Notes
  2. “o” indicates no data of this type was collected during the indicated eruption.
  3. “x” indicates some data of this type was collected.
  4. n/a indicates eruptions in which lava threatened the built environment or agricultural land but never reached it (i.e. never caused physical impacts); therefore, these eruptions could not provide physical impact data.
  5. 1 indicates that a lava flow attributes and physical impacts study (of the 2018 Kīlauea eruption) is currently (October 2019) underway