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Table 8 Table summarising basaltic lava flow events at Fogo Volcano that have threatened inhabited areas since 1950

From: Lava flow crises in inhabited areas part I: lessons learned and research gaps related to effusive, basaltic eruptions

Eruption (References) Overview, including impacts (Eruption duration) Response Recovery & Applying lessons learned
1951 (11) Lava flows inundated agricultural land and some houses. (2 months) No response actions reported. Recovery and how this eruption affected future preparation have not been reported.
1995 (1, 12, 13) A fountain-fed lava flow traversed the primary route to the village of Portela. After a week, the flow had reached the outskirts of a village near the crater wall. Agricultural land, a water reservoir, and five to ten houses were inundated. The newly built access route was also inundated near the end of the flow’s advancement; the lava flow widened after the flow front halted. The flow front subsequently reactivated and consumed a single house in Portela. After, the lava flow breached its levees and threatened the access route. It stopped advancing 2 m away. In total, an entire village, three houses in Portela, and 5 km2 of agricultural land were destroyed. (1.5 months) In the first day, approximately 1300 people from seven villages were evacuated by foot. Villagers continued to evacuate belongings after an access route was built through agricultural land two weeks after the eruption began. International geologists were asked to aid the local government. Residents of Portela returned regularly to tend their farms and homes and returned permanently after the eruption ended. A partially inundated vineyard was one of the primary businesses in the area, affecting the village’s economics for an extended time. A permanent monitoring network was installed after this eruption.
2014 (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13) This eruption resulted in the inundation of the two towns (including residential areas, a school, a hotel, a factory, and churches), a rural settlement, parts of the national park, and the main road running north-south in the caldera. Utility and roading networks were also destroyed, leading to access and communication difficulties. In total, more than 230 buildings, 1.2 km2 of agricultural land, and all infrastructure networks in the caldera were damaged or destroyed in this eruption. (2.5 months) Prior to inundation, both villages and the national park were evacuated. Settlements outside of the caldera also planned to evacuate. During this eruption, responding scientists were remotely supported by modellers using MAGFLOW to determine the potential evolution and impact of the flows. As of March 2015, buildings and roads were still being excavated and rebuilt. There were lasting economic impacts because of the inundated agricultural land. This eruption can provide significant data for future research as the inundation of both towns was well documented.
  1. 1: Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Network (1995), 2: Adamczyk (2014 December 8), 3: Economist Intelligence Unit (2014), 4: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (2014 December 19), 5: Al Bawaba (2015 February 4), 6: Fernandes et al. (2015), 7: Worsley (2015), 8: Cappello et al. (2\016), 9: Richter et al. (2016), 10: Jenkins et al. (2017), 11: global volcanism program (2019b), 12: WOVO (n.d.), 13: Komorowski et al. (2018)