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Table 1 Table summarising necessary data

From: Thermal impacts of basaltic lava flows to buried infrastructure: workflow to determine the hazard

Step Notes
1. Establish lava flow dimensions The lava flow’s dimensions can be measured if the lava flow is already emplaced. Otherwise, we recommend numerical modelling of the lava flow dimensions; required data vary depending on the model(s) selected. See Tsang (2020) for a model selection process. As of 2020, all models or model ensembles that produce the outputs necessary to implement this method require a topographic model, the vent location, and the effusion rate.
2. Overlay infrastructure and determine operating conditions Required infrastructure data are the infrastructure locations (ideally as a GIS shapefile) and operating conditions. If infrastructure data are too sensitive to provide the scientist, the outputs of Step 1 can be provided to the stakeholder for them to indicate the location(s) of interest.
Required data for operating conditions are:
1. The upper limit of the standard operating temperature of the infrastructure of interest,
2. The maximum operating temperature if the asset can operate above the standard operating temperature.
3. Model thermal profile of lava flow The temperature of the lava flow at the location(s) of interest are necessary. Some numerical models output this information across the entire lava flow, in which case the local temperature should be extracted at this step. Otherwise, a lava flow thermal model (e.g., FLOWGO) should be implemented or a temperature estimate should be generated. See Tsang (2020) for more information.
4. Model lava flow-substrate heat transfer Finite element analysis heat transfer modelling (Ansys APDL ( has previously been used to model lava flow-substrate heat transfer; see Tsang et al. (2019b) for more information.
5. Streamline results based on operating conditions This step combines the outputs of steps 2 and 4 into a user-friendly format.