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Table 4 Input values for the lava-substrate heat transfer modelling. The mesh size was doubled compared to the mesh size in Tsang et al. (2019b) given the thicker lava flow here. The lava temperature is based on Step 3, and the ambient temperature is from CliFlo (a national New Zealand climate database; https://cliflo.niwa.co.nz/). Modified from Tsang et al. (2019b)

From: Thermal impacts of basaltic lava flows to buried infrastructure: workflow to determine the hazard

Temperature in Celsiusa 127 227 327 427 527 627 727 827 927 1027
Lava Thermal Conductivity (klava) [W/(mC)]b 7.5 6.5 6.4 6.3 5.5 4.8 3.5 2.4 2.23 2.2
Lava Specific Heat (Cp,lava) [J/(kgC)]b 520 600 680 710 735 1000 1100 1100 1100 1100
Lava Density (ρlava) [kg/m3]c 2600
Lava Emissivity (εlava)c 0.95
Soil Density (ρsoil) [kg/m3]c 1437.9
Soil Specific Heat (Cp, soil) [J/(kgC)]c 425
Soil Thermal Conductivity (ksoil) [W/(mC)]c 0.75
Contact Pair Conductance [W/(m2C)]c 6.5
Convection (h) [W/(m2C)]c 8.41 (top)
Mesh Size [m]c 0.02
Lava Temperature (Tlava) [°C]d 1199
Ambient Temperature (Tamb) [°C] 16
  1. aAnsys MAPDL interpolates the properties between the temperatures provided
  2. bParameter varied to fit heat transfer model to experimental data
  3. cThese parameters were not treated as temperature dependent or only a bulk coefficient was used. Thus, a single value at all temperatures was used
  4. dThis is the core temperature of the lava flow