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Table 3 Pedestrian evacuation speeds adopted and weightings (translated and modified from Péroche 2016)

From: Tsunami evacuation times and routes to safe zones: a GIS-based approach to tsunami evacuation planning on the island of Stromboli, Italy

  Speeds after application of reduction coefficient (km/h)
Class Slope value (%) Associated speed
(km/h)
Two-lane road Single-lane road Passageway, path, stairs, unsurfaced track
Reduction coefficient    1 0.8 0.5
1 <  3 4.85 4.85 3.88 2.43
2 [3–6[ 4.55 4.55 3.64 2.28
3 [6–9[ 4.26 4.26 3.41 2.13
4 [9–12[ 3.97 3.97 3.18 1.99
5 [12–15[ 3.69 3.69 2.95 1.85
6 [15–18[ 3.42 3.42 2.74 1.71
7 [18–21[ 3.15 3.15 2.52 1.58
8 [21–24[ 2.90 2.90 2.32 1.45
9 [24–27[ 2.65 2.65 2.12 1.33
10 ≥ 27 1.71 1.71 1.37 0.86