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Table 1 Tephra load thresholds considered for the hazard analysis, with their tephra thickness thresholds and corresponding damages on infrastructures, adapted from Bonadonna et al. (2005); Komorowski et al. (2008) and Wilson et al. (2017)

From: Volcanic hazard assessment for tephra fallout in Martinique

Mass load Thickness Damages to infrastructures
1.07 kgm−2 >1 mm Maintenance required on supply networks, airport closing
10.7 kgm−2 >1 cm Extensive repair required on supply networks, damage to vegetation
107 kgm−2 >10 cm Replacement required on supply networks; airport completely buried
214 kgm−2 >20 cm Roads impassable for all vehicles, roof collapse (timber)
1,070 kgm−2 >1 m Complete destruction
  1. Supply networks stand for water and electrical supply, and include wastewater network