Skip to main content

Table 10 Pre-event and post-event mitigation strageties for critical infrastructure sectors in the three main urban areas affected by ashfall

From: Impacts to agriculture and critical infrastructure in Argentina after ashfall from the 2011 eruption of the Cordón Caulle volcanic complex: an assessment of published damage and function thresholds

Infrastructure Towns Pre-event planning Mitigation Recovery strategies
Electricity Villa la Angostura Some ashfall planning, mosly around the cleaning of lines Fire trucks deployed to wash insulators; Increased insulator pin length from 250 mm to 500 mm (initially in locations prone to flashover, but eventually all 3,500 insulators were changed) Cleaning insulators; increase insulator pin length
Bariloche Some ashfall planning, mosly around the cleaning of lines 20 MW diesel generation plant installed for back-up supply (usual demand 45–55 MW so some shortfall); fire crews rinsed insulators Cleaning insulators; generator use
Jacobacci No ashfall specific planning Switches required ongoing replacements (for months after the eruption); volunteer firefighters washed lines after the eruption and severe remobilisation events (however due to ash remaining dry because of the lack of rainfall flashover risk was reduced) Cleaning insulators; replacement of switches
Water Supply Villa la Angostura Planning for stream blockages (army brought in to clear these) Drilled a groundwater well ~21 m deep (not treated and distributed via gravity fed system) to make up for the short fall due to issues with stream blockages and pump maintenance issues; pumps that were abraided by ashfall were replaced Replacement of pumps/pump components; new groundwater well drilled
Bariloche No ashfall specific planning Sand filters neded to be cleaned more frequently than the pre-eruption routine which was for one sand bed out of rotation for cleaning every ten days; generators prioritised for running pumps to treatment plant, however the demand (2 MW) exceeded the capacity of the generator trucks (1 MW per truck) Replacement of pumps/pump components; cleaning of filtration mechanisms
Jacobacci No ashfall specific planning A new well was dug to to cover the increased demand due to the eruption New groundwater well drilled
Infrastructure Towns Pre-event planning Mitigation Recovery strategies
Waste water Villa la Angostura No ashfall specific planning - -
Bariloche Some planning but only to itry prevent ash from getting into system initially Some discharge of untreated wastewater was made into the lake as the system became overwhelmed; municipal crews dug ash out of catchpits to try prevent ash getting into the system; manually moved generators around the system to keep wastewater moving; pump impellers replaced every six months rather than 12 Discharge of untreated wastewater into lake; replacement of pump components
Jacobacci No ashfall specific planning - -
Roading Villa la Angostura Some ashfall planning but underestimated the amount of ashfall and the number of trucks required Route 231 and the main roads within the town were cleared by bulldozers the day after the eruption; water tankers were used to dampen down ash and prevent remobilisation Bulldozing and sweeping roads clear; dampening down ash; cleaning air filters more frequently
Bariloche Some ashfall planning but underestimated the amount of ashfall and the number of trucks required Main roads began to be cleared of ash by municipal authorities within hours of eruption; road sweepers were deployed for smaller ashfall events Bulldozing and sweeping roads clear; dampening down ash; cleaning air filters more frequently
Jacobacci Some ashfall planning, but not specific amounts and equipment Speeds reduced to 20 km/h on days where ashfall was being remobilised; municipal water trucks dampened down ash on roads; ash removal and clean up focussed on main roads and reopening link to Bariloche Bulldozing and sweeping roads clear; dampening down ash; cleaning air filters more frequently
Airports Bariloche Some ashfall planning Did not receive official warning so no prior actions could be taken; ashfall was placed into hollows and dips in the surrounding land and then vegetated to prevent remobilisation; an extensive irrigation system was also installed to keep ash from remobilised onto the runway Removal of ash; dampening down of ash; permanent irrigation system installed