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Table 7 Ash thicknesses with impacts compared to previous ashfall events 2010-2012 (NI - Not investigated within studies; NA- Not applicable)

From: Impacts to agriculture and critical infrastructure in Argentina after ashfall from the 2011 eruption of the Cordón Caulle volcanic complex: an assessment of published damage and function thresholds

Eruption PCC-VC 2011 Tongariro 2012 Shinmoedake 2011 Sakurajima 2011 Tungurahura 2010
Localities impacted Villa la Angostura Bariloche Jacobacci Rangipo Kirishima Miike Kagoshima Riobamba
Ash thicknesses (mm) 150–170 30–45 50 2 1 60–80 1 10
Electricity Flashover     
Air intakes clogging       
Switch abrasion         
Controlled outage        
Generator blockage         
   Stream-fed Main WTP Stream-fed Main WTP       
Water Turbidity increase   NI NI NI  
Damage to pumps      NI NI NI  
Filtration contamination       NI NI NI  
Clogging of filters     NI NI NI  
Increased demand   NI NI NI  
Waste water Effects on sewer networks (clogging, wear on pumps) NA NA NI NI NI NI NI
Damage to pre-screening equipment NA   NA NI NI NI NI NI
Power outages affecting pumping NA   NA NI NI NI NI NI
Ash accumulation in treatment tanks NA   NA NI NI NI NI NI
Roading Road closures     
Air filter blockage        
Decreased traction      
Decreased visibility        
Road markings covered NA    
Airport Airport closed NA NA NA NA NA