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Table 1 Notable building damage (>20 houses destroyed) by lava flows in the period 1965–2015. Data sourced from Blong (1984) and Harris (2015) and supplemented with references noted in the table

From: Damage from lava flows: insights from the 2014–2015 eruption of Fogo, Cape Verde

Volcano Date Building damage description Source
Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland 1973–1974 Approximately 300 houses in Heimaey town destroyed by lava or fire. Williams and Moore (1983)
Karangetang (Api Siau), Indonesia 1976 24 houses destroyed (and a further 44 in the path of the flow dismantled) Global Volcanism Program (1976)
Nyiragongo, Democratic Republic of Congo 1977 Approximately 400 houses in two villages destroyed, and 12 km2 of agricultural land buried. Global Volcanism Program (1977a)
Piton de la Fournaisse, Réunion 1977 33 houses and a church in Piton Sainte Rose were destroyed. The road was also buried. Global Volcanism Program (1977b)
Kīlauea, USA 1986, and 1990–1991 181 buildings – the majority of Kalapana town –destroyed, mostly during the 1990–1991 lava flows. More than 10 km of public highway was buried. Global Volcanism Program (1992)
Nyiragongo, Democratic Republic of Congo 2002 4500 buildings destroyed. Baxter et al. (2002)
Fogo, Cape Verde 2014–2015 170 buildings destroyed, 90 damaged. The only road was buried, along with ~2 km2 of agricultural land (25% of all cultivable land) This study and PDNA, 2016