Skip to main content

Table 2 List of the 33 InSAR detected deformation sources that are more than 5 km from the nearest Holocene volcano. Displacements that lie beneath Pleistocene volcanoes, or apparently recent volcanic deposits are indicated with a star, and details provided in the ‘context of deformation’ column

From: Synthesis of global satellite observations of magmatic and volcanic deformation: implications for volcano monitoring & the lateral extent of magmatic domains

Volcano Approximate offset distance (km) Point of reference for offset Context of deformation Description of Footprint Estimated deformation source depth (km) References
Akita-Komagatake 5 Stratovolcano summit Subsidence triggered by Tohoku earthquake, near two Cenozoic calderas Ellipse, primary axis ~ 55 km 1.8 to top of pluton Takada and Fukushima 2013; Ozawa and Fujita 2013
Atka (Korovin) 5 Korovin stratocone – site of eruption Co-eruptive subsidence (2006) and subsequent uplift Roughly concentric on Kliuchef cone Mogi sources 3-4 km (subsidence); 5-8 km (uplift) Lu and Dzurisin 2014
Cerro Aquihuato 7 Aquihuato summit Uplift – no associated activity Morales Rivera et al., 2016
Cerro Azul 7 Volcano summit Subsidence triggered by Maule earthquake Ellipse, primary axis ~ 10 km Shallow point source Pritchard et al. 2013
“Bay of Plenty”, Off axis Taupo Volcanic Zone ~ 35 Okataina Uplift on margin of Taupo Volcanic Zone Roughly 40 km diameter Point source, 9.5 km Hamling et al., 2016
“Bora” 8 Bora-Bericcio volcano (nearest GVP) Uplift in low-lying area between Bora Berrichio and Tulla Moje Roughly circular Penny shaped crack 0.9-1.3 km Biggs et al. 2011
Calabozos* 16 Volcano summit Subsidence beneath Pleistocene collapse caldera, triggered by Maule earthquake Ellipse, primary axis ~ 30 km Mogi source, 7.2 km Pritchard et al. 2013
Chillán, Nevados de 5 Volcano summit Subsidence triggered by Maule earthquake Ellipse, primary axis ~ 15 km Spherical source, 7 to 10 km Pritchard et al. 2013
“Lazufre”* 9 Cordón del Azufre volcano (nearest GVP) Uplift between Lastarria and Cordon del Azufre, spans wide area encompassing three active volcanic centres and 2 older calderas Ellipse, primary axis ~ 45 km Various analytical models, 6 to 15 km Pritchard and Simons 2004; Froger et al. 2007; Ruch et al. 2008; Henderson and Pritchard 2013
Fernandina 6 Fernandina summit Uplift 1992-1997 attributed to intrusion on SW flank. This is most likely a one-off sill intrusion, not connected to reservoir formation Roughly circular, ~  5 km diameter Okada planar sources used to model intrusions, ~ 1 km depth Amelung et al. 2000; Jonsson et al. 1999; Bagnardi et al., 2013
“Fourpeaked-Douglas” 7 Fourpeaked volcano (nearest GVP) Uplift between Fourpeaked and Douglas volcanoes Roughly circular, diameter approximately 15 km Mogi source, ~ 7 km Lu and Dzurisin 2014
“Haledebi” * 10 Hertali volcano (nearest GVP) Epsiodes of uplift and subsidence between Hertali, fresh looking lava flows above signal Roughly elliptical, primary axis ~  8 km Sill, 2.7 to 8.8 km Biggs et al. 2011
“Hualca Hualca” * 7 Sabancaya (nearest GVP), 2.5 km East of Hualca hualca summit Uplift 2 cm/yr. 1992-1996, unclear if pluton has any connection to either Sabancaya or Hualca hualca Roughly circular, ~  90 km diameter Various EHS source geometries, 11 to 13 km Pritchard & Simons, 2004
Iwatesan 13 Volcano summit Uplift during seismic swarm Roughly circular 12 km diameter Mogi source, 7.9 km Nishimura et al. 2001
Kirishimayama 5 Shinmoedake vent Pre-eruptive uplift (2011) Miyagi et al., 2013
Kurikomayama 25 Volcano summit Subsidence triggered by Tohoku earthquake, displacement well-aligned with Cenozoic caldera rim Ellipse, primary axis ~ 40 km Takada and Fukushima 2013; Ozawa and Fujita 2013
Lassen 5 Volcano summit Variable rate subsidence SE of Lassen Peak Roughly circular, 30-40 km diameter Various elastic half space models, 8.18-11.6 km Poland et al. 2017; Parker et al., 2016
“Gelai”* 25 Ol Doinyo Lengai summit Deflation of reservoir during Gelai rifting event, beneath Pleistocene shield volcano Complex signal due to coincidence slip on fault and dyke opening Mogi source, 4-8 km Biggs et al., 2013
Makushin 5 Volcano summit and most recent eruptive vent Episodes of uplift and subsidence Roughly circular, variable diameter Mogi and Sill sources in range of 5.0 to 7.4 km Lu & Dzurisin, 2014
Nasudake 5 Volcano summit Subsidence triggered by Tohoku earthquake Ellipse, primary axis 15 km Ellipsoidal pluton, top depth 3.8 km Takada and Fukushima 2013; Ozawa and Fujita 2013
Nevado del Ruiz 10 Temporally correlated unrest at Nevado del Ruiz, but nearer Santa Isabel Uplift during unrest and eruption at Ruiz volcano Roughly circular, 20 km Point or spheroidal source,14 km Lundgren et al., 2015a
Cerro Overo* 13 Cordón de Puntas Negras (El Laco volcanic complex is ~ 10 km to the SW). Uplift 1992-2003, subsidence 2003-2010, SE terminus of Puntas Negras Roughly circular, 17 to 20 km Mogi source, 9 km pre-2003 uplift, 13 km post 2003 subsidence Henderson and Pritchard 2013
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle 2-10 2011-2012 eruptive vent Three episodes of pre-eruptive uplift, co-eruptive subsidence and an event triggered by the 2010 Maule earthquake Various geometries and areas of signals between 1996 and 2012, areas from 20 to 400 km2, some sources beneath past vents Various analytical sources, depths 5-9 km. Jay et al., 2014; Delgado et al., 2016
Recheshnoi 7 and 12 Volcano summit Uplift near Geyser Bight and Hot Springs Cove (smaller patch of subsidence superimposed) Ellipse, primary axis 7 km Lu and Dzurisin 2014
“Robledo” 8 Cerro Blanco volcano (note some difference in the application of name ‘Robledo’ to caldera and lava dome in publications) Long term subsidence Roughly circular, diameter 20 km Various analytical models, 4.5 to 6 km Pritchard and Simons 2004; Henderson and Pritchard 2013; Brunori et al., 2013
Seguam 8 Pyre’s peak, site of most recent eruptions Pulses of uplift and subsidence in eastern caldera Roughly circular, diameter 10 to 15 km Mogi source, 5.5 km during uplift, 2 km during subsidence Lee et al. 2013; Lu and Dzurisin 2014; Masterlark and Lu 2004
Shishaldin 15 and 30 Volcano Summit Uplift East of Shishaldin and NW of Shishaldin (close to Fisher) temporally correlated with 2004 eruption Gong et al. 2015
Spurr 20 Volcano summit Uplift during seismic swarm NE of Spurr, near Strandline Lake Approximate diameter of 35 km Mogi source, 12 to 16 km Lu and Dzurisin 2014
Tanaga 6 Volcano summit Uplift centred between Tanaga and Takawangha spanning both Approximate diameter of 16 km Mogi and Yang sources, 5 to 8 km Lu and Dzurisin 2014
Three Sisters 5 Volcano summit Uplift with variable rate, WSW of volcano Ellipse, primary axis 20 km Analytical and numerical models, 5 to 7 km Dzurisin et al. 2009; Wicks et al. 2002; Riddick and Schmidt 2011
Tinguiririca 6 Volcano summit Subsidence triggered by Maule earthquake Ellipse, primary axis 20 km Spherical source, 8 to 10 km Pritchard et al. 2013
Villarica 5 Volcano summit Post-eruptive uplift, near Holocene crater rim Uplift SE of volcano Mogi source, ~  4.2 km- Delgado et al., 2017
Zaozan 20 Volcano summit Subsidence triggered by Tohoku earthquake Subsidence triggered by Tohoku earthquake Ellipse, primary axis 30 km Takada and Fukushima 2013; Ozawa and Fujita 2013