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Table 2 Means, standard deviations, and test statistics for demographic differences in intentions to prepare and perceived preparedness

From: Community preparedness for volcanic hazards at Mount Rainier, USA

   Intentions   Preparedness   
   M SD Means comparison M SD Means comparison
Sex Male 2.42 1.09 t(531) = 5.22, p < .001, d = 0.45 3.04 1.22 t(530) = 3.34, p < .001, d = 0.29
  Female 2.76 1.16   2.48 1.14  
Zone Live 2.31 1.20 F(3, 429) = 2.04, p = .11 2.54 1.10 F(3, 429) = 8.67, p < .001, ηp2 = .06
  Work 2.73 1.10   2.79 1.15  
  Both 2.58 1.16   2.57 1.12  
  Neither 2.57 1.14   3.16 1.19  
Evacuation Need help 3.19 1.24 t(511) = 3.44, p < .001, d = 0.30 2.20 1.25 t(490) = 3.57, p < .001, d = 0.32
  Don’t need help 2.53 1.12   2.82 1.17  
  1. Note. Cohen’s d effect sizes can be interpreted as 0.15 = small, 0.36 = medium, and 0.65 = large (Lovakov & Agadullina, 2021)
  2. Partial eta square (ηp2) effect sizes can be interpreted as .01 = small, .06 = medium, and .14 = large